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视觉盛宴

原文作者:张薇

  电影给咱们呈现了太多的奇观:人能刀枪不入还会飞,灭绝许多年的恐龙能复生……这些画面传神得难以想象,让人拍案叫绝。当然,这得归功于那些奇特的电影特效技能。让咱们一起来回忆那些具有里程碑含义的电影,揭开其间特效镜头的奥秘面纱吧。
   1. star wars (1977)
  motion-control photography, in which a computer is used to control a long, complex series of camera movements, made possible the spaceship battles in star wars. it would have taken too long to film the scenes manually2), says anne thompson, deputy film editor at the hollywood reporter.
   2. tron (1982)
  it wasn't the first film to use computer-generated graphics and many effects were hand-drawn, but the fantasy flick3) tron was the first to use computer imagery to create a 3d world, making it one of the pioneering computer-generated imagery (cgi) films. "effects people said, 'let's see what the computer can do,'" says harry knowles, movie critic at ain't it cool news.
   3. terminator 2: judgment day (1991) [188bet网站]
  "morphing" was first used in willow (1988), but in t2 the effect was "jaw-dropping", knowles says. the liquid-metal robot's humanoid4) texture, which was layered onto a cg model, looked frighteningly real.
   4. cliffhanger (1993)
  faux5) alpinist6) stallone was held up7) by wires that were later digitally removed. the ability to erase wires changed how stunts8) are done: now stars and stuntmen can be put in real-world environments as well as in front of green screens.
   5. jurassic park (1993)
  although they enjoyed only about 6 minutes of screen time, jurassic park's digital dinosaurs were a revelation9): they introduced cgi live animals with realistic movements, and believably textured muscles and skin. the photorealistic digital elements were intercut10) with animatronic11) dinosaurs.
   6. forrest gump (1994)
  while most filmmakers in the early '90s used digital effects to create fantasy, the creators of forrest gump altered history. using kodak's cineon system, they digitized archival12) footage13), and composited tom hanks's character into historical clips.
   7. the perfect storm (2000)
  although much previous work had been done to make cgi water look real, the perfect storm's monster wave scene set a new benchmark14). "water is an organic thing that's hard to create in software," says andy maltz of the motion picture academy of arts and sciences. "to make it look believable was a big thing."
   8. the lord of the rings (2001)
  for the huge battle scenes in the lord of the rings trilogy, the filmmakers created massive, a computer program that generates crowds of artificially intelligent individuals "who make their own decisions based on behavior patterns", knowles says. this makes for more realistic battles.

 9. the polar express (2004)
  director robert zemeckis used a large motion-capture stage and up to 200 cameras to gather data from the performance of tom hanks and other ac

tors. this data was used to help animators create digital versions of the actors while maintaining their performances.
   10. the day after tomorrow (2004)
  the creators of the film about worldwide climatic disaster took more than 50,000 photos of new york city and scanned them into a computer, providing "a 3d, photorealistic model of the city", anne thompson says. after that, destroying the metropolis15) with a giant digital wave was a piece of cake.
   1. 《星球大战》(1977年)
  运动操控摄像技能是指使用电脑操控摄像机移动,进行长串杂乱的接连摄像的技能。www.seunghunhome.com这项技能使拍照电影《星球大战》中飞船交兵的镜头成为可能。《好莱坞报导者》日报电影版的副总编安妮·汤普森说,假如手动拍照这些镜头,那花费的时刻就太长了。
   2. 《电子国际争霸战》(1982年)
  虽然《电子国际争霸战》不是首部选用电脑绘图技能的电影,而且该片的许多特效是手绘完结的,可是这部科幻电影却是首部选用电脑图画来制造三维国际的影片。这使它成为选用电脑绘图技能(cgi)的前驱影片之一。ain't it cool news网站的电影谈论员哈利·诺尔斯说:“特效人员说,‘让咱们看看电脑能做些什么吧’。”
   3. 《终结者2:审判日》(1991年)
  1988年,影片《风云际会》初次应用了图画变形技能,可是在《终结者2》中该技能的效果据诺尔斯说“让人震动”。液态金属机器人那像人类相同的肌理是一层层铺在电脑制造的模型上的,看起来惊人得传神。
   4. 《绝岭雄风》(1993年)
  史泰龙(编注:《绝岭雄风》的主角)并不是真的爬山运动员,他是被钢索吊起来的,这些钢索在后期被人使用数字技能去掉了。能够去掉(镜头中)钢索的技能改变了惊险动作的拍照方法:现在,影星和特技艺人既能够在实在环境下拍照,也能够在绿屏前拍照。(编注:艺人在绿屏前扮演完后,后期经过电脑软件处理,将绿色部分换成特定布景。)
   5. 《侏罗纪公园》(1993年)
  虽然《侏罗纪公园》中的数码恐龙在电影中仅呈现了六分钟,但它们在其时可谓一个壮举。这些数码恐龙展示了电脑绘图技能制造的栩栩如生的动物,它们有着实在的动作、传神的肌肉和皮肤安排。画面写实的数码元素和电子动画恐龙的镜头在影片中替换切换。
   6. 《阿甘正传》(1994年)
  20世纪90年代初期,当大多数电影制造人选用数字技能来发明奇幻场景时,《阿甘正传》的制造团队却改变了前史。他们经过柯达的cineon数码印象体系把档案印象材料数字化,并将汤姆·汉克斯扮演的人物(编注:即阿甘)刺进到了这些前史片段中。
   7. 《完美风暴》(2000年)
  虽然前人为了让电脑制造的水看上去传神业已做了许多作业,但《完美风暴》中骇人的巨浪的画面却发明晰新的水准。“水是一种不可分割的东西,很难用电脑软件制造,”在美国电影艺术与科学学院作业的安迪·马尔茨说,“能让水看起来传神可信的确了不得。”
   8. 《魔戒》(2001年)
  为拍照电影《魔戒》三部曲中气势恢宏的战争场面,该片制造团队发明晰群组动画软件massive。该电脑软件能够生成人工智能人群,据诺尔斯说,智能人群中的个别“能够依据各自的行为形式做出决议”。这个软件有助于制造更为传神的战争场面。
   9. 《极地特快》(2004年)
  该片的导演罗伯特·泽米基斯选用了一个大型的动作捕捉舞台和多达两百台摄像机来收集汤姆·汉克斯和其他艺人的扮演材料。这些材料用来协助动画师在坚持艺人扮演的一起生成这些艺人的数字化版别。
   10. 《后天》(2004年)
  为了拍照这部关于全球范围内气候灾祸的影片,该片的制造人员拍照了五万余张纽约市的相片,并将这些相片扫描到电脑中,生成了“一个传神的纽约市的三维模型”,安妮·汤普森说道。完结这项内容后,制造用数码巨浪炸毁纽约市的镜头便是小菜一碟了。
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  •  更新时刻:2013-04-07 16:34:33  作者:佚名 [标签: 视觉盛宴 三亚 视觉盛宴 三亚 视觉盛宴 ]
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