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哈丽雅特·塔布曼

原文作者:萧萧

  哈丽雅特·塔布曼,美国闻名的废奴主义者,美国南北战役时期黑奴逃跑安排“地下铁道”的领导人之一,为了黑人奴隶的解放奋斗终生,被评为美国内战前最巨大的三位布衣之一。她不识字,但懂得考虑;她铁骨铮铮,亦不乏诙谐;她英勇无畏,信仰坚决;她是世界上最英勇、最仁慈的人,也是美国人心中的巾帼英豪。在她去世后的一百年里,美国数十所学院以她的姓名命名;美国海军战舰第一次运用一位黑人布衣妇女的姓名命名;在美国邮政局发行的留念美国黑人的系列邮票中,留念她的邮票总数排在首位;在美国评选的最巨大的一百名非裔美国人中,她位列其间。本年是塔布曼去世一百周年,让咱们一起走进这位奇女子的传奇人生。
   there was one of two things i had a right to, liberty, or death; if i could not have one, i would have the other; for no man should take me alive.
   —harriet tubman [188bet网站]
  harriet was born as a slave around 1820. like all slave children, she could not run and play; she worked all the time. harriet was a hard worker, but when she did not obey her owner she was whipped cruelly. when she saw her owner sell two of her sisters, harriet was terrified that she would also be sold and have to leave her family.
   哈丽雅特·塔布曼大约出生于1820年,生来就是奴隶。www.seunghunhome.com与其他童奴相同,哈丽雅特不能乱跑和游玩,只能不停地干活。尽管她干活很卖力,但只需一不遵从主人,就会遭到严酷的抽打。当她亲眼看着自己的两个姐妹被主人卖掉时,她吓坏了,惧怕自己也会被卖掉而不得不脱离家人。
   dreams of escape
  when she was a young girl, harriet tried to help an escaping slave. the slave's master threw a metal weight at her, and it struck her in the head. harriet almost died from the wound on her forehead. for the rest of her life, she had headaches and sleeping spells2) because of her injury.
   harriet's life was harsh3), but she had dreams. she dreamed of escaping to the north and living as a free woman. when harriet started planning her own escape, she wanted her husband, a free slave, to join her. he refused, mocking her for wanting to leave, and threatened to report her to her master. but harriet was determined to become a free woman.
   one day, harriet's owner died. harriet knew the slaves would be sold; it was time to go. harriet and two of her brothers ran away, but soon after they left, the brothers gave up, forcing harriet to return with them.
   two nights later, harriet escaped alone. to escape, harriet walked 100 miles, alone, through unknown land. she traveled at night and hid during the day. finally, she arrived at the border of pennsylvania, a state where slavery was illegal. harriet was free!
   leading others to freedom
  when harriet reached freedom, she was overjoyed. "there was such a glory over everything," she said when she remembered that day. "the sun come like gold through the trees."
   harriet went to work. she cooked, washed dishes, and cleaned people's houses. now that she was free, people actually paid her to work for them. but harriet was not content to sit back and enjoy her freedom—she saved the money she earned so that she could help free others.

  harriet made nineteen perilous4) trips back to the south, ignoring her own danger in order to become a conductor5) of the underground railroad6). she guided escaping slaves from one safe resting place to another.
   how she did it
  many c

alled harriet a "master of disguise". sometimes she dressed as an old woman, and sometimes she disguised herself as a man. it is said that one day she met one of her former owners, and he didn't recognize her!
   harriet was clever in other ways. she hired men to rip down wanted posters that described runaway slaves. runaway notices, which were printed in the newspaper, weren't put in newspapers on weekends—they had to wait until monday morning. harriet began escapes on saturday nights in order to have a head start7).
   if harriet saw people she thought were slave hunters, she'd turn and go south, to make it look as though she was not trying to escape. if the escaping slaves wanted to turn back, she forced them to keep moving north to freedom. she boasted that she never lost a passenger.
   slave owners were furious, and they offered a reward for harriet's capture, dead or alive. the reward was $40,000—an enormous amount of money for those days. one day, harriet overheard a man reading her own wanted poster, which described harriet as not being able to read. she immediately pulled out a book and pretended to read it, and the man left without giving her a second look.
   harriet helped many of her own relatives out of the south. thanks to harriet, six of her ten brothers and sisters escaped. on one difficult journey, she brought her elderly parents north to canada.
   harriet led about three hundred slaves north to freedom. nothing was more important to her than helping others become free. one famous abolitionist, john brown, called harriet tubman "one of the bravest persons on this continent". people called harriet the "moses of her people", because like moses of the bible, she led her people to freedom.
   the end of slavery
  on april 12, 1861, the civil war began. during the war, harriet worked as a nurse for the north's union army. she was also a spy, scouting8) out the southern army's weapon warehouses9), and she continued to travel into the south to lead slaves north.
   after the civil war, harriet remarried and lived in auburn, new york. she sold vegetables door-to-door. harriet was very poor, yet she turned her own house into a home for needy freed people. she worked for aid and education for freed slaves. harriet also fought for the right of women to vote.

  harriet tubman died march 10, 1913. she devoted her long life to freedom. she will always be remembered as a true hero.
   流亡之梦
  在哈丽雅特仍是小女子的时分,她从前企图协助一个出逃的奴隶。那个奴隶的主人朝她扔了一个金属秤砣,正好砸到她的头上。她的脑门被砸伤了,她差点儿因而丧身。她在尔后的一生中都因这次受伤而被头痛和睡觉欠好所困扰。
   尽管日子很艰苦,但哈丽雅特心胸愿望。她愿望着逃到没有奴隶制的北方,像一个自在女人那样活着。在哈丽雅特初步方案自己的流亡之旅时,她想让老公(一个取得自在的奴隶)和她一起逃跑。她的老公非但不愿,还讪笑她居然想要逃跑,并扬言要向她的主人揭发她。但是,哈丽雅特铁了心要成为一个自在的女人。
   一天,哈丽雅特的主人死了,她知道奴隶们都会被卖掉,是时分该逃跑了。她和自己的两个兄弟一起逃跑,但出逃没多久,她的两个兄弟就抛弃了流亡,还逼迫她跟着他们回去。
   但在两天后,哈丽雅特趁着夜色独自一人踏上了出逃之路。为了逃跑,她步行走了100英里,独自一人穿行在生疏的土地上。她白日东躲西藏,晚上赶紧赶路,最终总算抵达宾夕法尼亚州的鸿沟。在这里奴隶制是不合法的,哈丽雅特自在了!
   自在的引领者


  取得自在的哈丽雅特感到狂喜不已。她在回忆起那天的景象时说:“一切都带着光环,穿过树林照耀而来的阳光就像金子一般闪闪发光。”
  哈丽雅特初步去作业,她给别人煮饭、洗碗、清扫屋子。因为她已是自在人,人们真的会付钱给她,让她来给自己干活。但哈丽雅特却不满足于这种悠闲自在、享用自在的日子,她把自己挣来的钱都攒了下来,好协助其他的奴隶取得自在。
   为了成为一名“地下铁道”安排的“乘务员”,她不论本身风险,先后19次历经艰难险阻重返南边,带领流亡的奴隶们曲折于一个又一个的安全落脚点。
  逃跑的诀窍
  许多人称哈丽雅特为“伪装高手”。她有时穿成是垂暮的妇女,有时将自己扮作男人。据说有一天她遇到了曾经的某位主人,那人居然没认出她来。
  哈丽雅特的聪明还体现在其他方面。她雇人去撕下那些描绘逃奴特色的通缉告示。其时的逃跑布告都印在报纸上,但在周末的报纸上不会刊登,有必要要比及周一早上才干见报。所以哈丽雅特就在周六晚上安排奴隶逃跑,以抢占先机。
   要是哈丽雅特觉得自己遇到的人像是前来追捕逃奴的人,她便掉头往南走,好让人看起来她并不是想逃跑相同。要是流亡的奴隶想要反悔,她便会逼迫他们持续朝着北方行进,朝着自在前行。她骄傲地声称她从未让一个“乘客”掉过队。
   奴隶主们非常愤恨,他们赏格缉捕哈丽雅特,不论活捉仍是干掉都行。赏金达四万美元,这在其时但是很大的一笔钱。有一天,哈丽雅特无意中听到一个男人在读通缉她的告示,告示上说哈丽雅特不识字。她就马上掏出一本书来伪装在读,而那个男人都没有再看她一眼就走了。
   哈丽雅特协助自己的许多亲属逃出了南边,她十个兄弟姐妹中有六个都是亏得有她协助才得以逃走的。在一次险阻的出逃中,她还带着自己垂暮的双亲一路北上直至加拿大。
  在哈丽雅特的带领下,三百多名奴隶逃往北方,重获自在。对她而言,没有什么事情比协助别人取得自在更重要。闻名的废奴主义者约翰·布朗称哈丽雅特·塔布曼为“这片土地上最英勇的人之一”。人们称她为“同胞们的摩西”,因为她就像《圣经》中带领犹太人逃出埃及的摩西相同,带领她的同胞们走向自在。
   奴隶制的完结
  1861年4月12日,美国内战迸发。哈丽雅特在战役中是北方联邦军的一名护理,一起也是一名侦查员,担任侦查南边戎行的军火库所在地。在此期间,她还持续往复于南北方之间,带领奴隶们逃往北方。
   内战完毕后,哈丽雅特重新组建了家庭,久居纽约州奥本市,靠挨家挨户卖菜为生。尽管她自己很穷,但她仍是将自己的房子变成一个收留所,收留那些现已取得自在而又非常赤贫的人。她为那些得以解放的奴隶争夺物质上的协助和受教育的权力,也为争夺女人的投票权进行了尽力。
   哈丽雅特·塔布曼于1913年3月10日脱离了人世。她一生都在为自在而战。人们会永久铭记这位真实的英豪——哈丽雅特·塔布曼。
  4. perilous [?per?l?s] adj. (充溢)风险的
  5. conductor [k?n?d?kt?(r)] n. 乘务员。此处指“地下铁道”安排中协助奴隶逃跑的人员,是该安排的暗语之一。
  6. underground railroad: “地下铁道”,给逃往美国北方寻求自在的奴隶们供给一些安身之地或藏身之所的安排。
  7. head start: 占先;有利的初步
  8. scout [ska?t] vi. 侦查
  9. warehouse [?we?ha?s] n. 库房
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